In many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped; It is useful to know a lifesaving technique Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Ideally, CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing.
However, what you as a bystander should do in an emergency situation really depends on your knowledge and comfort level.
The bottom line is that it's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life.
Here's advice from the American Heart Association:
* Untrained. If you're not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don't need to try rescue breathing.
* Trained, and ready to go. If you're well trained, and confident in your ability, then you can opt for one of two approaches: 1. Alternate between 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths. 2. Just do chest compressions. (Details described below.)
* Trained, but rusty. If you've previously received CPR training, but you're not confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100 a minute. (Details described below.)
The above advice applies only to adults needing CPR, not to children.
CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.
When the heart stops, the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes.
To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED).
Before you begin
Before starting CPR, check:
* Is the person conscious or unconscious?
* If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you OK?"
* If the person doesn't respond and two people are available, one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 911.
* If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if instructed by the device, then begin CPR.