Custom Search

Sunday, December 12, 2010

How to get semen sample ?


1-The most common way to collect a semen sample is through masturbation, directing the sample into a clean cup.

2-A sample may also be collected during intercourse in a special type of condom known as a collection condom. Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation, and some religions prohibit masturbation entirely. Adherents of religions that prohibit contraception may use collection condoms with holes pricked in them.

3-A third option for collecting a sample is through coitus interruptus (withdrawal). With this technique, the man removes his penis from his partner near the end of intercourse and ejaculates into a cup.

4-Finally, if a blockage in the vas deferens is suspected to impede fertility, semen can be taken directly from the epididymis. Such a collection is called per cutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). Alternatively, the testicular tissue itself, instead of the sperm produced can be investigated. Then, the collecting method is called TESE.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Diet pills, supplements and surgery

Diet pills and surgery can help with weight loss — when combined with a healthy diet and physical activity. But diet pills aren't for everyone. Neither is surgery. In fact, many doctors consider them only if you have weight-related health problems.

If you're in that group, you and your doctor need to carefully evaluate the potential benefits of diet pills or surgery and weigh them against the possible long-term risks. Your doctor will also counsel you about the lifestyle changes you'll need to make to be successful over the long term.

A word of caution: Although you can find diet pills and supplements at your local drugstore, supermarket or health food store and online, most haven't been proved safe and effective. And some are downright dangerous. Talk with your doctor before taking any diet pills or supplements

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

How to wash your hands properly

Sunday, November 28, 2010

The Harvard Medical School Guide to Lowering Your Cholesterol


From the experts at one of the world’s most respected medical schools–your complete guide to managing cholesterol and staying healthy for life

Everybody knows that high cholesterol is something to be concerned about. But what does it really mean when your doctor tells you that your cholesterol levels are high, and what should you do about it? If you’re worried about your cholesterol, here’s your chance to get the answers you need from a top expert at the Harvard Medical School.

As founder and chief of the prestigious Lipid Metabolism Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. Mason W. Freeman treats hundreds of patients each year and oversees breakthrough cholesterol research.

In The Harvard Medical School Guide to Lowering Your Cholesterol he explains:

* What cholesterol is and the difference between “good” and “bad” cholesterol

* How to assess your risk for high cholesterol

* How to work with your doctor to develop the best treatment plan for you

* Cholesterol-lowering drugs–who should take them, what to look out for, and how to be sure your doctor is monitoring you properly

* How to manage your cholesterol through diet and exercise

* The latest scientific findings on alternative therapies

About the Harvard Medical School health guide series

Each book from Harvard Medical School gives you the knowledge you need to understand and take control of your health. In every book, a world-renowned expert from Harvard Medical School provides you with the latest information on diagnosis, traditional and alternative treatments, home remedies, and lifestyle changes that can make a powerful difference in your health.

Friday, November 26, 2010

DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES IN THE FIRST YEAR


Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills or age-specific tasks that most children can do at a certain age range. Your pediatrician uses milestones to help check how your child is developing. Although each milestone has an age level, the actual age when a normally developing child reaches that milestone can very quite a bit. Every child is unique!

By 3 months of age does your child:
Motor Skills
* lift head when held at your shoulder
* lift head and chest when lying on his stomach
* turn head from side to side when lying on his stomach
* follow a moving object or person with his eyes
* often hold hands open or loosely fisted
* grasp rattle when given to her
* wiggle and kick with arms and legs


Sensory and Thinking Skills
* turn head toward bright colors and lights
* turn toward the sound of a human voice
* recognize bottle or breast
* respond to your shaking a rattle or bell


Language and Social Skills
* make cooing, gurgling sounds
* smile when smiled at
* communicate hunger, fear, discomfort (through crying or facial expression)
* usually quiet down at the sound of a soothing voice or when held
* anticipate being lifted
* react to "peek-a-boo" games


By 6 months of age does your child:
Motor Skills
* hold head steady when sitting with your help
* reach for and grasp objects
* play with his toes
* help hold the bottle during feeding
* explore by mouthing and banging objects
* move toys from one hand to another
* shake a rattle
* pull up to a sitting position on her own if you grasp her hands
* sit with only a little support
* sit in a high chair
* roll over
* bounce when held in a standing position


Sensory and Thinking Skills
* open his mouth for the spoon
* imitate familiar actions you perform


Language and Social Skills
* babble, making almost sing-song sounds
* know familiar faces
* laugh and squeal with delight
* scream if annoyed
* smile at herself in a mirror


By 12 months of age does your child:
Motor Skills
* drink from a cup with help
* feed herself finger food like raisins or bread crumbs
* grasp small objects by using her thumb and index or forefinger
* use his first finger to poke or point
* put small blocks in and take them out of a container
* knock two blocks together
* sit well without support
* crawl on hands and knees
* pull himself to stand or take steps holding onto furniture
* stand alone momentarily
* walk with one hand held
* cooperate with dressing by offering a foot or an arm


Sensory and Thinking Skills
* copy sounds and actions you make
* respond to music with body motion
* try to accomplish simple goals (seeing and then crawling to a toy)
* look for an object she watched fall out of sight (such as a spoon that falls under the table)


Language and Social Skills
* babble, but it sometimes "sounds like" talking
* say his first word
* recognize family members' names
* try to "talk" with you
* respond to another's distress by showing distress or crying
* show affection to familiar adults
* show mild to severe anxiety at separation from parent
* show apprehension about strangers
* raise her arms when she wants to be picked up
* understand simple commands

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Vertebroplasty with Procedure Demonstration


What is Vertebroplasty :

The vertebral column or backbone tends to get weak as a person gets old. This is more common in women since female hormones are necessary for normal mineralization. The weak bones in the spine collapse, producing painful fractures. Till a few years ago the only treatment that was available for condition was a major surgery. However thanks to interventional radiology today a fractured bone of the spine can be strengthened by injecting a specialized medical cement ( bone cement) into the diseased vertebral body .









Procedure Demonstration :

Stryker Vertebroplasty uses a specially formulated acrylic bone cement to stabilize and strengthen the fracture and vertebral body. Its done on an outpatient basis and requires only a local anesthetic and mild sedation, eliminating the complications that may result from open surgery and general anesthesia. Stryker Vertebroplasty is considered a minimally invasive procedure because it is done through a small puncture in the patients skin (as opposed to an open incision). Technically simple, it usually takes about 30 minutes to complete.

Using sterile technique and fluoroscopic visualization, a 10-, 11- or 13- gauge needle is advanced into the fractured vertebra using a transpedicular approach. Bi-pedicular needle placement is recommended. Once the needles are in the correct position, bone cement is slowly injected into the vertebral body, diffusing throughout the intertrabecular marrow space and creating an internal cast that stabilizes the bone.

Following the procedure, patients lie flat on their back for a short period of time as the cement continues to harden. They may then go home. Almost all patients undergoing Stryker Vertebroplasty experience 90% or better reduction in pain within 24-48 hours and increased ability to perform daily activities shortly thereafter.








Friday, November 12, 2010

100 Questions & Answers About Your Child's Asthma (100 Questions & Answers about)



100 Questions & Answers About Your Child’s Asthma Gives You Authoritative, Practical Answers To Your Questions About Childhood Asthma, Treatment Options, Post-Treatment Quality Of Life, Coping Strategies For Both Patient And Caregiver, Sources Of Support, And Much More. This Book Is An Invaluable Resource For Understanding And Coping With The Medical, Psychological, Emotional And Financial Considerations Of A Child With Asthma.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Breakfast and Weight Control

Why does eating breakfast help control weight?

Here are some of the ways regularly eating a healthy breakfast may help you lose excess weight and maintain your weight loss:

* Eating breakfast reduces your hunger later in the day, making it easier to avoid overeating. When you skip breakfast, you may feel ravenous later and be tempted to reach for a quick fix, such as candy from the vending machine. In addition, prolonged fasting — which occurs when you skip breakfast — can increase your body's insulin response, which in turn increases fat storage and weight gain. In fact, skipping breakfast actually increases your risk of obesity.
* Eating breakfast gets you on track to make healthy choices all day. People who eat breakfast regularly tend to eat a healthier diet — one that is more nutritious and lower in fat. When you skip breakfast, you're more likely to skip fruits and vegetables the rest of the day too.
* Eating breakfast gives you energy, increasing your physical activity during the day. A healthy breakfast refuels your body and replenishes the glycogen stores that supply blood sugar (glucose). Skipping breakfast is associated with decreased physical activity.

Unfortunately, more Americans are skipping breakfast. If you're one of them — whether you're trying to save time or cut calories — you may want to reconsider, especially if you're trying to control your weight.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Facts About Sun Exposure

Direct sun exposure without any protection is very harmful to skin, as ultraviolet A rays are high-energy rays that can penetrate even tinted glass. Use a maximum UVA protection sunscreen on a daily basis with advice from a board-certified dermatologist in this free video on skin care.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Galactorrhea Causes


Galactorrhea is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it's a sign of an underlying problem. Although it occurs most often in women, galactorrhea can happen in men and even sometimes in infants.

Sometimes, the cause of galactorrhea can't be determined, and the condition goes away on its own.

Galactorrhea often results from too much prolactin — the hormone responsible for milk production (lactation) when you have a baby. Prolactin is produced by your pituitary gland, a marble-sized gland at the base of your brain that secretes and regulates several hormones.

Possible causes of galactorrhea include:

* Medications, such as certain tranquilizers, antidepressants and high blood pressure drugs
* Herbal supplements, such as fennel, anise or fenugreek seed
* Birth control pills
* A noncancerous pituitary tumor (prolactinoma) or other disorder of the pituitary gland
* An underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
* Chronic kidney disease
* Excessive breast stimulation, which may be associated with sexual activity, frequent breast self-exams, a skin rash on the chest or prolonged clothing friction
* Nerve damage to the chest wall from chest surgery, burns or other chest injuries
* Spinal cord surgery, injury or tumors

Idiopathic galactorrhea
Sometimes doctors can't find a cause for galactorrhea. This is called idiopathic galactorrhea, and it may just mean that your breast tissue is particularly sensitive to the milk-producing hormone prolactin in your blood. If you have increased sensitivity to prolactin, even normal prolactin levels can lead to galactorrhea.

Brown rice VS White rice in type 2 diabetes


Healthy eating plays a major role in diabetes prevention and management, as demonstrated by a new study published online by the Archives of Internal Medicine, suggesting that choosing brown rice over white rice may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. But selecting the right type of rice isn't the only food choice you can make to help avoid the disease. To ward off diabetes—or keep it in check if you've already been diagnosed—consider adding the foods on the following slides to your diet.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Higher Healthcare Costs in 2011

WASHINGTON :- The amount employers spend on their workers' healthcare costs will reach a 5-year high in 2011, and employees will also face larger out-of-pocket costs for their medical care next year, according to a forecast released Monday by the consulting group Hewitt Associates.

Because of higher medical claim costs, an aging population, and changes under the new healthcare reform law, employers can expect to pay nearly 9% more toward their employees' healthcare costs than they did in 2010.


The findings are in line with a recent survey by the National Business Group on Health that asked large employers what they expected to pay for their workers' medical costs in 2011. The answer: about 9% more than in 2010.

The average total healthcare premium per employee working at a large firm will be $9,821 in 2011 -- up from $9,028 in 2010.

Employees will contribute, on average, $2,209, or 22.5% of the total premium, which is a few hundred dollars more than in 2010, when the average employee at a large firm paid 21.8% of their total premium, to total slightly less than $2,000. Once out-of-pocket costs for co-pays and deductibles are factored in, employees can expect to pay about $486 more than they paid toward their medical costs in 2010.

The authors of the Hewitt report say that the new figures mean that healthcare premiums have more than doubled in the past decade and employees' share of their medical costs will have more than tripled.

The high 2011 cost projections are based on a number of factors, the study authors said. For one, employers haven't hired many new employees in recent years, which has resulted in a slightly older work force that is more prone to expensive medical conditions.

Certain insurance market reforms contained in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) -- such as covering dependents until age 26 and eliminating lifetime and annual limits -- contributed to about 1% to 2% to the 9% increase in what employers are likely to pay in 2011.

"After 18 months of waiting for healthcare reform to play out, employers find themselves in a very challenging cost position for 2011," said Ken Sperling, Hewitt's healthcare practice leader, in a press release. "Reform creates opportunities for meaningful change in how healthcare is delivered in the U.S., but most of these positive effects won't be felt for a few years. In the meantime, employers continue to struggle to balance the significant healthcare needs of an aging work force with the economic realities of a difficult business environment."

Hewitt's data came from a database with detailed census, cost, and plan design information for 350 large U.S. employers representing 14.4 million participants and $51.9 billion in 2010 healthcare spending.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Cesarean Birth (C-section) Delivery & Birth

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Water Liposuction - The Futuristic Technology is here

Water Liposuction or Water Assisted Liposuction with Body-Jet is the newest FDA approved liposuction. Unlike laser or other liposuction methods, the new technique uses water which is the most natural substance to our delicate body to loosen up fat from the connective tissue for easy removal. It is ultra safe and highly effective. People see results instantly and recover even faster.

Monday, August 30, 2010

3 Exercises to lose weight fast

It is not difficult to lose your weight when you have the right information, at the right time, and the right tools to put it to use. If you will do these 3 best popular exercises on a consistent basis, week in and week out, then combined with a good diet, you will lose weight fast.


1. Interval running: Running has the potential to burn more calories per amount of time worked than any other exercise there is. No, I don’t mean jogging. Although you can use walking, then jogging as a way to prepare yourself to be able to run in the future. Interval running is just running with short breaks in between. For example: run for 30 seconds, then take a 30 second break then repeat.

2. Rowing: ..wow I love it, Rowing is a complete body workout and can be done outside on a lake, in the comfort of your own home, or at a gym. It burns a lot of calories and builds lean muscle.

3. Squat Presses: This exercise is well known to trainers and athletes alike, but not to the mainstream. It is simply taking a dumbbell or a barbell, then doing a squat. As you come to the top of your squat, you press the dumbbells (or barbell) above your head and then bring it back down and repeat. This exercise works every large muscle in the body and if done with short rest periods can be a good cardio workout (gets the heart rate up).

If you really want to lose weight, and want to do it fast, then you will have to use exercise. If you do these exercises 3-5 times per week (and be sure to mix it up), then you will reach your weight loss goals.

Saturday, August 28, 2010

4 Alternative Therapies for Alzheimer’s

Treatment with the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba to improve mental functioning is considered experimental.

Other therapies, like light therapy, aromatherapy, and exercise, may help reduce behaviors such as agitation but should only be done with supervision.

Other Choices :

* Ginkgo biloba. Many people take ginkgo biloba to improve or preserve memory. But studies have not shown that ginkgo biloba helps improve memory or prevent dementia.15 Ginkgo biloba is widely used in Europe to treat age-related dementia, including Alzheimer's disease.

* Aromatherapy.
One small study indicates that this therapy, when used as a lotion containing essential balm oil, may be safe and effective for reducing significant agitation in people with severe dementia.16 But more research is needed to prove its effectiveness.

* Light therapy.
This treatment is often used to relieve depression. It may help reduce depression, agitation, and sleeplessness associated with Alzheimer's disease. The person is exposed to either natural light or artificial light for several hours every morning or at night to reduce depression.

* Exercise.
Gentle exercise, such as walking or swimming, can also relieve symptoms of depression associated with Alzheimer's disease. Exercise is most effective when it is combined with teaching caregivers how to work through behavioral problems with the person who has Alzheimer's disease.

Another way a caregiver can try to reduce agitation is to play soothing music for the person who has Alzheimer's disease, during meals and when the caregiver is helping with bathing.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Athlete's Foot


Also called: Tinea pedis



Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by the tinea fungus. It is not serious. Symptoms include itching, burning and cracked, scaly skin between your toes. Tinea grows best in damp, dark and warm places, which is why it often develops between your toes. It can spread to your toenails, as well, making them thick and crumbly.

You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as locker room floors. To prevent it

  • Wash your feet every day
  • Dry your feet well, especially between your toes
  • Wear clean socks
  • Don't walk barefoot in public areas
  • Wear flip-flops in locker room showers

Treatments include over-the-counter antifungal creams for most cases and prescription medicines for more serious infections.

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Questions and Answers about Cancer




What is cancer?
Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All cancers begin in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Cancer that arises from organs and solid tissues is called a solid tumor. Cancer that begins in blood cells is called leukemia, multiple myeloma, or lymphoma.

Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old and die, new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should.

The extra cells form a mass of tissue, called a growth or tumor. Tumors can be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body, and they are rarely a threat to life. Malignant tumors can spread (metastasize) and may be life threatening.

What is primary cancer?
Cancer can begin in any organ or tissue of the body. The original tumor is called the primary cancer or primary tumor. It is usually named for the part of the body or the type of cell in which it begins.

What is metastasis, and how does it happen?

Metastasis means the spread of cancer. Cancer cells can break away from a primary tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system (the system that produces, stores, and carries the cells that fight infections). That is how cancer cells spread to other parts of the body.

When cancer cells spread and form a new tumor in a different organ, the new tumor is a metastatic tumor. The cells in the metastatic tumor come from the original tumor. This means, for example, that if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, the metastatic tumor in the lung is made up of cancerous breast cells (not lung cells). In this case, the disease in the lungs is metastatic breast cancer (not lung cancer). Under a microscope, metastatic breast cancer cells generally look the same as the cancer cells in the breast.


Where does cancer spread?
Cancer cells can spread to almost any part of the body. Cancer cells frequently spread to lymph nodes (rounded masses of lymphatic tissue) near the primary tumor (regional lymph nodes). This is called lymph node involvement or regional disease. Cancer that spreads to other organs or to lymph nodes far from the primary tumor is called metastatic disease. Doctors sometimes also call this distant disease.

The most common sites of metastasis from solid tumors are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. Some cancers tend to spread to certain parts of the body. For example, lung cancer often metastasizes to the brain or bones, and colon cancer frequently spreads to the liver. Prostate cancer tends to spread to the bones. Breast cancer commonly spreads to the bones, lungs, liver, or brain. However, each of these cancers can spread to other parts of the body as well.

Because blood cells travel throughout the body, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma cells are usually not localized when the cancer is diagnosed. Tumor cells may be found in the blood, several lymph nodes, or other parts of the body such as the liver or bones. This type of spread is not referred to as metastasis.



Monday, August 2, 2010

Cholesterol test


also called a lipid panel or lipid profile —....It is a group of blood tests that measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body. If your cholesterol levels are high, you probably won't have any signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool. High cholesterol levels are a significant risk factor for heart disease.

What's measured in a cholesterol test?
A complete cholesterol test, referred to as a lipid panel or lipid profile, includes the measurement of four types of fats (lipids) in your blood:

* Total cholesterol. This is a sum of your blood's cholesterol content.
* High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol because it helps carry away LDL cholesterol, thus keeping arteries open and your blood flowing more freely.
* Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol. Too much of it in your blood causes the buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) in your arteries (atherosclerosis), which reduces blood flow. These plaques sometimes rupture and can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
* Triglycerides. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood. When you eat, your body converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into triglycerides, which are stored in fat cells. High triglyceride levels usually mean you regularly eat more calories than you burn. High levels are also seen in overweight people, in those consuming too many sweets or too much alcohol, and in people with diabetes who have elevated blood sugar levels.

Relationship between Arcus senilis and high cholesterol

Arcus senilis and the eye findings associated with high cholesterol are distinctly different.

What is Arcus senilis!! It is a gray or white arc visible above and below the outer part of the cornea — the clear, dome-like covering over the front of the eye, also known as arcus cornealis, Eventually, the arc may evolve into a complete ring around the cornea.
Arcus senilis is common in older adults. It's caused by fat (lipid) deposits deep in the edge of the cornea. It isn't necessarily related to high cholesterol, however. Arcus senilis doesn't affect vision, nor does it require treatment.

High cholesterol is more likely associated with a similar gray or white arc visible around the entire cornea (circumferential arcus) in younger adults. Even then, however, eye findings associated with high cholesterol are uncommon — typically affecting only people who have severe cases of high cholesterol and high triglycerides passed down through families (familial hyperlipidemia). Treatment is generally aimed at controlling cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

The average person who has high cholesterol doesn't develop an arc of any type. If you're concerned about eye health and high cholesterol, consult your doctor for an evaluation.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Facts About Sun Exposure

Direct sun exposure without any protection is very harmful to skin, as ultraviolet A rays are high-energy rays that can penetrate even tinted glass. Use a maximum UVA protection sunscreen on a daily basis with advice from a board-certified dermatologist in this free video on skin care.

Monday, July 26, 2010

7 Nutrition Fundamentals for Losing Fat

Dr Clay shares 7 fundamental nutrition tips that serve as the foundation of any good diet.

Thursday, July 22, 2010

The Medical Benefits of Vitamin C

Monday, July 19, 2010

Ectropion



Ectropion is an outward turning of the lower eyelid, most commonly caused by aging, although eyelid burns or skin disease may also be responsible.
Normally, the eyelids help lubricate and cleanse the eye during blinking. The sagging lower eyelid leaves the eye exposed and dry, and as a result, excessive tearing is common with ectropion. If it is not treated, the condition can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of the eyelid, mucous discharge, and irritation of the eye. A serious inflammation could result in damage to the eye. Ectropion can be diagnosed with a routine eye exam. Special tests are usually not necessary.

Symptoms:
The wet, inner, conjunctival surface is exposed and visible. Normally, the upper and lower eyelids close tightly, protecting the eye from damage and preventing tear evaporation. If the edge of one eyelid turns outward, the two eyelids cannot meet properly, and tears are not spread over the eyeball. This may lead to irritation, burning, a gritty, sandy feeling, excess tearing, visible outward turning of the eyelid, and redness of the lid and conjunctiva.


Treatments:
Treatment varies. Make an appointment with your doctor to discuss your condition.But in general
Artificial tears (a lubricant) may relieve dryness and keep the cornea lubricated. Surgery to tighten the muscles that hold the eyelids in place is usually effective. It may be performed as outpatient surgery with local anesthesia.

Melanoma


Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). It is one of the less common types of skin cancer but causes the majority of skin cancer related deaths. Malignant melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer. It is due to uncontrolled growth of pigment cells, called melanocytes.Despite many years of intensive laboratory and clinical research, the sole effective cure is surgical resection of the primary tumor before it achieves a Breslow thickness greater than 1 mm.

Around 160,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed nationally each year, and it is more frequent in males and Caucasians. It is more common in Caucasian populations living in sunny climates than in other groups. According to a WHO report about 48,000 melanoma related deaths occur worldwide per year.

Malignant melanoma accounts for 75 % of all deaths associated with skin cancer.

The treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor, adjuvant treatment, chemo- and immunotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Detection

To detect melanomas (and increase survival rates), it is recommended to learn what they look like (see “ABCD” mnemonic below), to be aware of moles and check for changes (shape, size, color, itching or bleeding) and to show any suspicious moles to a doctor with an interest and skills in skin malignancy.

A popular method for remembering the signs and symptoms of melanoma is the mnemonic “ABCDE”:

* Asymmetrical skin lesion.
* Border of the lesion is irregular.
* Color: melanomas usually have multiple colors.
* Diameter: moles greater than 6 mm are more likely to be melanomas than smaller moles.
* Enlarging: Enlarging or evolving

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Rhinoplasty (Nose Job)

Florida facial plastic surgeon, David C. Pearson, M.D., explains rhinoplasty (cosmetic plastic surgery of the nose) in this illustrated video of the procedure.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Most Common Sport injuries and their prevention


Even with proper conditioning, equipment and other precautions you may still develop pain from exercise. If so, what you do immediately can prevent the pain from becoming a chronic problem. At the first sign of pain stop or ease back on your sport immediately

Ankle Sprains and Strains

A number of factors can lead to ankle sprains, including poor technique and uneven terrain. The right footwear is essential to preventing a sprain, but it isn’t the only thing you can do. If you have a history of ankle injuries a brace can provide extra stability to prevent re-injury. Physical therapy after an injury can increase strength and range of motion.

Knee Pain
Knee injuries are often caused by improper technique, lack of conditioning and poor flexibility. While it’s important to build up training gradually to avoid overuse, biomechanics can also come into play, if you have flat feet or high arches, pronate or supinate, you may have more knee pain. Appropriate footwear or orthotics can improve alignment and help reduce injury risk. If you are a cyclist, proper bike fit can also make a huge difference.

Lower Back Pain
Low back pain is a common problem and one of the main reasons is inactivity. As we get older and less active, we lose the strength and balance in the core muscles (abs and low back) can lead to poor posture, improper alignment, fatigue and pain. Regular exercise is the best way to protect your lower back.

Elbow Pain
Tennis players and golfers have more elbow injuries than most, but anyone can develop elbow pain. Although conditioning is a major cause, proper technique is essential to preventing problems. Take a class or get professional instruction. Also, make sure your equipment fits well.

Shoulder Injuries
frequently seen in throwing sports, rotator cuff tendonitis is a common cause of shoulder pain. Staying in shape and easing into an activity are the best ways to prevent problems. There are a number of potential shoulder injuries; however, so proper conditioning is essential for your sport.

Muscle Pull
Probably the most common sports injury is a muscle pull, which can happen to almost any muscle in the body. No matter how diligently you warm up and stretch, or cool down and stretch, you may pull a muscle from overuse, fatigue or taking a fall. There is little you can be done to prevent a muscle pull except to stay limber and work your muscles regularly.

Muscle Pull Treatment
The universally held treatment for a muscle pull or tear is to apply ice and rest until the pain and swelling subside. The ice relaxes the muscle and helps relieve any spasm. Ice should be applied for about 20 minutes on, then 20 minutes off, as much as possible for a few days. The dull ache of a muscle pull usually disappears within a few days.
A muscle pulls when a sudden, severe force is applied to the muscle and the fibers are stretched beyond their capacity. If only some of the fibers tear, that is a muscle pull. If most of the fibers tear, that is a muscle tear.
As soon as tolerable, begin gently stretching the muscle. A pulled muscle may go into spasm as a reaction to being overstretched. If the muscle fibers are not gradually re-lengthened, the muscle will pull again with return to activity because it will have healed in a shortened state. In general, you can return to action when the injured body part can be stretched without pain as far as the healthy one on the other side of the body. That may take a week for a calf muscle or more than a month for a hamstring pull.

Even with proper conditioning, equipment and other precautions you may still develop pain from exercise. If so, what you do immediately can prevent the pain from becoming a chronic problem. At the first sign of pain stop or ease back on your sport immediately. Apply ice for 15 to 20 minutes several times a day and elevate the injured area. If you still have pain after two or three days, you should see your physician.

Friday, July 9, 2010

Diets to Lose 5 Pounds

Sometimes you want to look your best for friends and family, colleagues or job interviewers. Even if you are not obese, when a favorite pair of jeans or a shirt fits tight, it affects your morale. The diet industry has many quick weight loss programs that work for a disciplined or motivated individual. Follow the rules and five pounds will disappear but remember that quick weight loss is often temporary without permanent lifestyle changes. Like any dieting plan, talk to a doctor before starting, especially if you have preexisting conditions.

5-Day Miracle Diet
The 5-Day Miracle diet limits the amount of calories and carbohydrates that you eat and focuses on portion control. The goal is to reduce food cravings and stabilize blood sugar levels. Breakfast is an egg with a slice of toast 30 minutes after awakening. Snacks include a nectarine, half cup of grapefruit, raw carrots or cauliflower eaten two hours later. Lunch is at 1 p.m. with a protein, fresh vegetables and fruit, followed by another snack three hours later. Dinner is vegetables, any protein (2 to 4 ounces) and bread. Men can eat three starchy foods every day but women can only eat starch every other day. The diet advises you to drink lots of water.

Cabbage Soup Diet
The cabbage soup diet requires you to eat nothing but cabbage soup for seven days. It is not for pregnant women, children, the elderly or anyone with gastrointestinal disorders. The diet is simple and easy to remember, with a focus on one main food--cabbage soup at lunch, dinner, and for a snack. It is a low-fat, high-fiber diet plan that works for temporary quick weight loss.

Grapefruit Diet
The Grapefruit diet is for people in good health who want to lose weight fast. It is a fad diet that has been around since the 1930s when Hollywood made it popular. The diet is a low-calorie plan that is easy to understand with three meals per day and a daily snack. With each meal, the dieter eats half a grapefruit or half a cup of unsweetened grapefruit juice. This is a strict diet for successful weight loss but there is no behavior modification so some people regain the weight they lost.

Counting Calories & Weight Loss

Many people fret upon the idea of having to count calories in their daily diet, with reasonable justification. The one problem is is that there is a lot of hype regarding the process of counting calories, and another problem is that most people don't even know how to put that caloric information to work. It's all a very simple concept, and a simple process once you understand the basics.

First of all, let us get the facts down about calories themselves and what they are. A calorie is essentially a unit of energy. When a calorie is used, it's burned as energy. Macronutrients are all made up of calories. There are three primary macronutrients, and we've all heard about them. Protein, Carbohydrates and Fat. One gram of protein and carbohydrates contain 4 calories, and one gram of fat contain 9 calories (thus you can see why fat is a major culprit.)

Now how do macronutrients and their calories all correlate to weight loss? It's a simple principle that professionals in the fitness industry refer to as "Calories in vs. Calories out".

The "Calories In" portion represents the amount of food you're consuming on a daily basis. Remember, all of the food you eat comes equipped with food labels, which all contain macronutrients, which contain calories. All of us generally follow a "diet plan" even if we don't follow one intentionally. We all have certain foods we eat at certain times, and we can average that information out. What you need to do is spend some time figuring out how many calories all of those foods amount to, in an average day. Once you have this number, you will know how many calories you're taking in per day.

The "Calories Out" portion represents the amount of calories your body burns on a daily basis. You burn calories through two ways. One way is through involuntary means, which is referred to as your Basal Metabolic Rate. The many functions your body performs like your beating heart, brain functions, lungs, digestive system, etc... all require energy (calories) to function and they burn a lot of calories throughout the day. The second way to burn calories is through physical activity (voluntary action). You can visit the weight loss programs website to take a free fitness profile which will help you determine how many calories your burning on a daily basis.

Now here is where we bring it together. If the amount of calories your burning is fewer than the amount of calories you're taking in per day, you will gain weight. If they're equal to each other, you won't lose or gain weight. And if you're burning more calories than what you're taking in, you will obviously begin to lose weight. From there, it's only a matter of determining an approach in which you can control your diet by cutting back calories, and reinforcing your weight loss efforts by burning more calories through exercise.

Friday, July 2, 2010

Good Film on COPD and it`s health care costs ($42.6 billion)


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs causing shortness of breath. In contrast to asthma, the limitation of airflow is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time.

COPD is caused by noxious particles or gases, most commonly from smoking, which trigger an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung. The inflammatory response in the larger airways is known as chronic bronchitis, which is diagnosed clinically when people regularly cough up sputum. In the alveoli, the inflammatory response causes destruction of the tissues of the lung, a process known as emphysema. The natural course of COPD is characterized by occasional sudden worsenings of symptoms called acute exacerbations, most of which are caused by infections or air pollution.

The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug therapy (often using inhalers). Some patients go on to requiring long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Worldwide, COPD ranked 6th as the cause of death in 1990. It is projected to be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020 due to an increase in smoking rates and demographic changes in many countries.[2] COPD is the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S., and the economic burden of COPD in the U.S. in 2007 was $42.6 billion in health care costs and lost productivity.

COPD is also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease.

Facts about High Protein Diet

One of the most important nutrient that the body needs is Protein. In its pure form, it consists of chains of amino acids - there are 22 amino acids that get together to form different proteins, and 8 of these must come from the foods we eat(essential). Our body utilises these amino acids to form body elements:muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails and internal organs. Proteins help replace and build new tissue, transports oxygen and nutrients in our blood and cells, regulates the balance of water and acids, and is needed to make antibodies.

However, much much protein poses danger to your health. Eating too much protein (specifically animal protein) results to heart disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and kidney stones.

Many are unconsciously practicing a dangerous eating style. Americans consume two times more protein than what is actually required. Some people who work on weight loss diets go on high-protein diets and are eating up to four times the amount of protein that their body needs. This is still a questionable kind of diet because according to the American Heart Association and the National Institutes of Health, the ideal amount of protein that adults should consume should be as little as 50-60 grams. This breaks down to about 10-12% of total calories. Your body only needs 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight. To calculate the exact amount you need, multiply your ideal weight by 0.36. This will give you your optimum daily protein requirement in grams. Since the amount of protein needed depends on the amount of lean body mass and not fat, ideal weight is used instead of actual weight.

People on high-protein diets are consuming up to 34% of their total calories in the form of protein and up to 53% of total calories from fat. Most of these people are unaware of the amount of protein and fat that is contained in the foods they eat. For instance, a typical 3-ounce beef hamburger, which is small by American standards, contains about 22 grams of protein and 20 grams of fat. Animal proteins are loaded with cholesterol and saturated fat.

Many people on these diets also experience an elevation in their LDL (the bad) cholesterol when they remain on this diet for long periods. High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood clog arteries and is the chief culprit in heart disease, particularly heart attack and stroke. So while you may lose weight in the short-run, you are putting your cardiovascular health in jeopardy in the long-run.

By replacing animal protein with vegetable protein and replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat, like that found in olive and canola oils, you can avoid the pitfalls of the typical high-protein diet. You will be able to improve your health and regulate your weight while enjoying a vast array of delicious, nutritionally dense, high fibre foods.

Thursday, July 1, 2010

Near-Death Experiences and Brain Activity

Near Death Experiences(NDE) are the experiences that a person feel or observe when he is near to his death.Many Scientists are doing many researches on this topic and observe the experiences of thousands of person who come in life again after Near Death Experiences.

A lot of Mysteries are present in NDE which varies one to one but 1 thing is common among all i.e. the person is walking through dark tunnel toward a luminous light end. He sees an attractive shining light and then he moves toward it. In most cases the word “light from a point or dark tunnel” is discussed by the persons after NDE. This data come to us from the persons who experienced but do not die. Now the Researchers concentrate on finding the biological reasons for all these experiences. One of a major they find is “Brains Activity or Brain waves during NDE”.

The mystery of why people ‘brought back from the dead’ report powerful spiritual experiences may have a biological explanation, according to experts.

* Researchers who studied brainwaves of dying patients, found there was a surge of electrical activity in their brains just moments before their lives ended.
* The doctors from George Washington University medical centre in Washington believe this surge may be the cause of near-death experiences, where patients see themselves walking towards a bright light or floating outside their bodies.
* Many patients who experience these sensations believe they are having a religious vision and treat it as confirmation of an afterlife.
* Some revived patients even reported seeing religious figures. Others said they felt suffused with a sense of peace as they start to walk into a light-filled tunnel.

However, the intensive care doctors at George Washington have an alternative biological explanation, which has been published in the Journal of Palliative Medicine. A team led by Dr Lakhmir Chawla used an electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that measures brain activity, in seven terminally ill people to provide pain-relieving sedation. Dr Chawla noticed moments before death patients experienced a burst of brainwave activity that lasted from 30 seconds to three minutes. The activity was similar to that measured in fully conscious people. Soon after the surge the patients were declared dead.

Dr Chawla said, “We think the near-death experiences could be caused by a surge of electrical energy released as the brain runs out of oxygen”. As blood flow slows down and oxygen levels fall, the brain cells fire one last electrical impulse. It starts in one part of the brain and spreads in a cascade and this may give people vivid mental sensations.’ He added that he had seen the same phenomenon in around 50 other patients.

However, Sam Parnia, leader of the Awareness During Resusciation study in the UK, said Dr Chawla’s conclusions should be treated with caution. Dr Parnia said there was no proof that the electrical surge is linked to near death experiences as all the patients died. His team are currently interviewing 700 Britons who have been brought back to life after cardiac arrests to study the mental consequences of the experience.

Near death experiences have been found to have a positive effect on the majority of patients, whatever their cause. A Dutch study published in The Lancet in 2001 found around one in five cardiac arrest victims underwent a near-death experience. They found these patients tended to feel happier, more altruistic and less afraid of death later on.

Friday, June 25, 2010

Medicare enrollment problems,Medicare payments


A 3-physician, family medicine practice in Lexington, Va., recently found itself with roughly $40,000 in unpaid Medicare claims -- practice revenue that was in limbo because of a cascade of blunders in Medicare's physician enrollment process.

Brenda Harlow, office manager for Lexington Family Practice since 1981 and, thus, no newcomer to the Medicare game, commented she'd never seen anything like the mess in which the practice found itself recently.

The nightmare started with the completion of Medicare enrollment forms in January. A series of events, including Medicare contractor mailroom mishaps and a lack of clarity about what information the contractor needed from the practice, stretched on for nearly two months, according to Harlow.

Then the hammer came down.
"Payments from Medicare were stopped on March 12," said Harlow. Subsequently, the practice was notified that, as of May 25, all three physicians in the practice could be "barred from Medicare for a year."

Robert Pickral, M.D., has been serving Medicare patients at the Lexington practice since 1981. "What is the message to the physicians of America when this kind of disruption happens?" he asked.
"We operate a small practice in a small community. Revenue is way down, and federal quarterly taxes are due," said Pickral, adding that Medicare patients account for nearly 25 percent of the practice's patient panel.

As of June 2, the practice still had no resolution regarding the Medicare enrollment problems, and it still has not received any Medicare payments.

According to Kent Moore, the AAFP's manager of health care financing and delivery systems, there is no way to know for sure how many other Academy members are experiencing similar problems with Medicare. But "I do know that Pickral's practice is not alone," he said.

"I have exchanged e-mails and phone calls with other AAFP members who have run afoul of Medicare's physician enrollment process," said Moore, adding "in some cases, physicians have had their Medicare billing privileges revoked as a consequence."


Avoiding Medicare Mishaps
Medicare's Provider Enrollment, Chain and Ownership System, or PECOS, may be the source of many problems, including those experienced by Pickral's practice, according to Cynthia Hughes, C.P.C., an AAFP coding expert who works with Moore in the AAFP's Practice Support Division.

The Internet-based PECOS was established in 2003, and physicians who have not submitted an enrollment application since it went operational need to re-enroll, said Hughes.

She also cited physician revalidation rules laid out in the Medicare Program Integrity Manual (275-page PDF; About PDFs). According to the manual, Medicare providers and suppliers "must resubmit and recertify the accuracy of their enrollment information every five years in order to maintain Medicare billing privileges."

According to Hughes and Moore, physicians can be proactive to prevent problems with Medicare. For example, physicians should

* log in to PECOS to see if they are registered there and to ensure that their information is complete and accurate;
* respond to Medicare requests for revalidation of enrollment in a timely manner, so if issues crop up, there is ample time to resolve them; and
* report any provider changes, such as a change of address, promptly.

"Physicians may think Medicare is picking on them, but the real issue is that there are lots of new rules that everyone is trying to follow," said Hughes.

She suggested that physicians who are rushing to beat a Medicare enrollment deadline and who are not already established in PECOS should submit a paper application. "Approval for PECOS registration can take some time," said Hughes.

Thursday, June 24, 2010

Mushrooms Benefits on Health

Mushrooms are gaining new respect from nutritionists and medical doctors, as scientists discover that mushrooms may play a role in fighting any number of ailments from high blood pressure to infections and even cancer. After more than 15 years of researchs, American scientists finally have access to a mushroom compound called AHCC (which stands for Active Hexose Correlated Compound), which was once available only in Japan and has been used extensively by Japanese hospitals and medical clinics since its development in the mid-1980s as a safe, natural way to help support the immune system.

AHCC is obtained from a hybridization of several species of medicinal mushrooms (including Shiitake), all organically cultivated in Japan. After extensive clinical research and significant evidence supporting its effectiveness, AHCC is gaining mainstream acceptance in the United States.

“The studies have been quite amazing,” says Fred Pescatore, M.D., M.P.H., who has recommended AHCC adjunct therapy for many of his patients. “It has been shown to work well in patients with cancer, hepatitis, immunocompromised patients and liver disease.

The immune system in our body works in part by detecting and eliminating foreign cells. For people with healthy immune systems, viruses, bacteria and abnormal cells are routinely found and destroyed before any damage is done, often before the person ever feels sick. AHCC has been shown in clinical studies to safely and naturally support a healthy immune response by activating and increasing the number of certain types of immune cells, and triggering related immune reactions in the body.

The excitement among scientists is growing as research progresses. U.S. clinical trials are underway at the More-house School of Medicine and Yale University. These studies follow a number of previous studies conducted by prestigious Japanese universities.

After one such study, a human clinical study of liver cancer patients conducted at the Kansai Medical University in Osaka, Japan and published in the July 2002 Journal of Hepatology, researchers remarked that “AHCC intake resulted in improved liver function, the prevention of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the prolonged survival of postoperative HCC patients without any adverse effect.”

Yoga as an effective treatment for back pain


New researchs from the U.S. suggests that the millennia-old therapy of yoga could benefit millions of people who suffer from back pain problems. In an article published in the Annals of Internal Medicine on December 20, researchers concluded that yoga act as a more effective treatment for back pain than conventional therapy.
A study conducted at the Group Health Cooperative in Washington State required 101 adults to follow a choice of remedial treatments – a 12-week course in yoga, 12 weeks of standard therapeutic exercise or the same period following instructions in a self-help book. The results showed yoga both expedited relief from pain and had longer lasting benefits. Lead researcher Dr. Karen Sherman said this was because “mind and body effects” were in collusion.

The article states that: “Most treatments for chronic low back pain have modest efficacy at best. Exercise is one of the few proven treatments…however, its effects are often small, and no form has been shown to be clearly better than another. Yoga, which often couples physical exercise with breathing, is a popular alternative form of ‘mind–body’ therapy…[It] may benefit patients with back pain simply because it involves exercise or because of its effects on mental focus. We found no published studies in western biomedical literature that evaluated yoga for chronic low back pain; therefore, we designed a clinical trial to evaluate its effectiveness.” Millions of people worldwide swear by yoga to improve their mental and physical health.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Facts About Freckles

Freckles are flat, circular small spots of melanin on human skin in people of fair complexion. The spots develop randomly on the skin, especially after repeated exposure to sunlight. They may vary in colour - they may be red, yellow, tan, light brown, brown, or black. They are usually more often seen in the summer, especially among lighter skinned people and people with light or red hair. Both men and women get freckles at an equal rate.

There are 2 basic types of freckles: - ephelides and lentigines. Ephelides, are flat red or light brown spots that typically appear during the summer months and fade in the winter. Lentigines, are small tan, brown, or black spots which tend to be darker than an ephelis type freckle and which do not fade in the winter.

Freckles are most commonly found on the face, although they may appear on any skin exposed to the sun. Freckles are rare on infants but are very common among children aged 5 to 15 years. They are usually less common on adults.

Causes of Freckles
- Exposure of skin to sun is one of the main causes of developing freckles. Freckles will fade when sun exposure is reduced or eliminated.
- The basic cause of freckles are special cells in the skin that produce a pigment called melanin. If you have melanin in your body accumulating at one place, then it may result in freckles age spots.
- Freckles are also influenced by genetic factors.- Hormone abnormalities can cause freckles since oestrogen over stimulates pigment producing cells, causing them to generate excess colour when exposed to sunlight.
- Fair skin is another main cause for freckles. There is less overall melanin in fair skin to absorb UV light, therefore pigment cells produce melanin at an increased rate.

Symptoms of Freckles
- There may be change in the skin colour and shape.
- Diarrhoea is another common symptom which is accompanied with freckles.
- There may be crampy abdominal pain and or weight loss.
- Skin cancer may be a possible symptom of freckles.
- Moles are often produced at the affected area of skin.
- There may be blood or mucus in the stool.

Treatments
1-Bleaching Creams - The use of hydroquinone and kojic acid are one of the beneficial treatment for freckles. They may help in lightning freckles if they are applied consistently over a period of months.
2-Cryosurgery: A light freeze with liquid nitrogen can be used to treat freckles.
3-Chemical Peels: Chemical peels are used to remove age spots, freckles, discoloration, wrinkles and fine lines. They generally help to make the skin smooth and firm and also help in curing freckles gradually.
4-Intense Pulsed Light Therapy (IPL): IPL is one of the newer forms of facial rejuvenation. IPL delivers energy to both the superficial (epidermis) and deep (dermis) layers of the skin, the epidermis is spared from damage. Thus, there is virtually no recovery time.
5-Tretinoin: Tretinoin (vitamin A acid, Retin-A) also helps to make freckles lighter when applied over a period of time.
6-Laser Treatment: Freckle removal is easily achieved with lasers. The laser light is very effective and helps in eliminating freckles safely.

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Effects of VitE & Zinc on developping and preventing damage to Sperms

A lot of guidelines and medicines are available to improve and prevent fertility. Most of them claim that the ingredient are naturally available without any doctor’s prescription to improve Fertility, but does not necessarily mean that it is safe to take. These ingredients may have unknown side effects with its toxicity which may lead not to improve Fertility even some hazards.

You should always notify your physician before starting any type of medication, supplement, or over the counter medication in order to improve fertility which you wish to follow like friends recommendation or by word of mouth. Generally Vitamin E is recommended which prevents the damage to sperm cells by acting as an antioxidant. Vitamin E also supports the sperm motility. This is widely used to improve fertility, as there are no reported side effects.


Also Zinc plays an important role to improve fertility in the formation of new sperm and maintenance of sperm motility. Adequate levels of zinc in the body are essential for men's reproductive health. Even foods high in Zinc like Oysters, beef, pork, turkey, lamb, and nuts can improve fertility. In natural herbal roots like Ginseng can improve fertility by increasing sperm counts, motility, and sexual stamina and reduce fatigue.

Although the results are still uncertain, no side effect or tolerated well when used in limited doses. Homeopathic medications show good records with increased sperm counts and motility. Nutritional foods include fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, nuts like cashew, almonds or walnuts, sweet & juicy fruits such as mangoes, peaches, plums, and pears all can improve fertility of both men and women.

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Health Risks and causes of Overweight children


A sufficient energy intake is important for children while they are growing, and a varied and nutritious diet is essential for their development. However,and like adults, if they take in more energy - in the form of food - than they use up, the extra energy is stored in their bodies as fat.

If your child is overweight or obese, it's more likely that he/she will develop some serious health problems more usually seen in adulthood, like hardened and blocked arteries (coronary artery diseases), high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes.

Overweight children are twice as likely to be obese when they grow up than children who aren't overweight. This means that in adulthood, they will be at an increased risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and certain cancers. The risk of health problems increases the more overweight you become.

As well as being a risk to the child's health, being overweight as a child may also cause emotional problems. Teasing about his/her appearance can affect a child's confidence and self-esteem, and can lead to isolation and depression.

An unhealthy diet combined with a lack of exercise are the main causes of childhood obesity. High-calorie foods such as chocolates, sweets and fast food are cheap and readily available to children. Alongside this, physical activity and exercise are no longer a part of most children's days - some children never walk or cycle to school or play sport. Instead, many of them spend hours in front of a television or computer.

Presence of a family history of being overweight or obese, your child may be more likely to be obese. Genetic factors may play a role in this, but the most important is shared eating and activity habits, or a combination of both,that are more likely to cause your child to be overweight.

It's unlikely that your child will be overweight because of an underlying medical problem.

What is a healthy weight for a child?
You may find it difficult to tell whether your child has temporary "puppy fat" or is genuinely overweight. Your GP will check height and weight charts (centile charts) when assessing your child to see if he/she is overweight for his/her age.

Friday, June 18, 2010

What is the Bone Denisty exam(DEXA scan)?

The bone density test or scan, is designed to check for osteoporosis( a disease that occurs when the bones become thin and weak). Osteoporosis happens when the bones lose calcium and other minerals that keep the bones strong. Osteoporosis begins after menopause in many women, and gets worse after age 65, often resulting in serious fractures. A bone density scan measures the strength of your bones and determines the risk of fracture.

Today, most people will get a bone density scan from a machine using a technology called Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry or DEXA for short. This machine takes a picture of the bones in the spine, hip, total body and wrist, and calculates their density. If a DEXA machine is not available, bone density scans can also be done with dual photon absorptiometry (measuring the spine, hip and total body) and quantitative computed tomography scans (measuring the spine). Bone density scanners that use DEXA technology to just measure bone density in the wrist (called pDEXA scans) provide scans at some drugstores. Yet these tests are not as accurate as those that measure density in the total body, spine or hip--where most fractures occur

To take a DEXA bone density scan, the patient lies on a bed underneath the scanner, a curving plastic arm that emits x rays. These low-dose x rays form a fan beam that rotates around the patient. During the test, the scanner moves to capture images of the patient's spine, hip or entire body. A computer then compares the patient's bone strength and risk of fracture to that of other people in the United States at the same age and to young people at peak bone density. Bones reach peak density at age 30 and then start to lose mass. The test takes about 20 minutes to do and is painless.

The DEXA bone scan exposes the patient to only a small amount of radiation--about one-fiftieth that of a chest x ray, or about the amount you get from taking a cross-country airplane flight.

BP is facing a bill of up to $34bn from the Gulf of Mexico disaster


BP is facing a bill of up to $34bn from the Gulf of Mexico disaster after US senators demanded the oil company deposited $20bn into a ring-fenced account to meet escalating compensation costs.

The sum dwarfs many analysts' previous estimates, shared by BP, that put the cost of the clean-up effort and payment of damages to affected communities, such as fishermen, closer to a total of $5bn.

Shares in BP nose-dived by more than nine per cent today as investors took fright at the demand by the 54 Democratic senators, who represent a majority in the US upper house. The company is now worth almost half what it was before the accident of just under two months ago.

BP already faces up to $14bn in civil penalties, payable under US environmental law, assuming the leak is plugged in August. These punitive damages are directly linked to the size of the spill – already estimated at being up to eight times worse than the Exxon Valdez disaster in 1989 – with BP liable for up to $4,300 for each barrel-worth spilt.

Senate leaders insisted the $20bn ring-fenced account should be exclusively for "payment of economic damages and clean-up costs" and should not be seen as a cap on BP's other legal liabilities. With punitive damages pending too, the theoretical total of $34bn is equivalent to more than half the corporation tax paid by all British companies last year.

Tony Hayward, chief executive of BP, and other directors of the company, will meet Barack Obama at the White House on Wednesday prepared to offer concessions in the hope of taking the sting out of mounting political attacks on the company.

BP will be in "listening mode", willing to cut its next dividend, worth about $2.5bn, possibly paying the cash into the clean-up fund. It will also reiterate its commitment to paying all legitimate claims arising from the disaster. But the company does not believe that the demand by the senators to stump up $20bn is justified.

Executives were also alarmed by the White House's insistence last week that BP must pay the wages of rig workers laid off by other firms because of the six-month moratorium on deepwater drilling in the gulf. If pursued, the company fears it would be exposed to potentially limitless claims from anyone affected by the disaster, which would eventually bankrupt the company. The company hopes that President Obama's statement, following the meeting with BP, will draw back from the demand.
Hayward, who was in Houston today overseeing the spill response, hosted a conference call with his board to discuss BP's next move. The company had indicated that it would wait as usual until close to its next results announcement, on 27 July, to decide whether or not to pay its next quarterly dividend. But it is now set to announce its intentions sooner, perhaps as early as Thursday. It is understood BP could use the dividend as a bargaining chip in its talks with the White House.

Obama today risked the wrath of families of 9/11 victims by comparing the gulf spill to the 2001 terrorist attacks, as pressure intensified on the White House to show greater urgency over the crisis.

Ahead of a trip to Louisiana and a televised address to the nation tomorrow, Obama said the spill, the worst environmental disaster in US history, would, like the 2001 terror plots, continue to influence the country for decades to come. Some people who lost relatives in the 9/11 attacks rejected the comparison. "I think he's off-base," said Jim Riches, a former New York fire department deputy chief, whose son died at the World Trade Centre. "These were 9/11 murders … not something caused by people trying to make money."