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Friday, April 30, 2010

New technology may help people quit smoking more easily

A new technology developed by researchers from Duke University Medical Center may soon help people quit smoking more easily. The new technology, which delivers more efficiently nicotine to the blood stream, provides immediate relief to withdrawal symptoms.

“We wanted to replicate the experience of smoking without incurring the dangers associated with cigarettes, and we wanted to do so more effectively than the nicotine replacement therapies currently on the market,” said Jed Rose, Ph.D., director of the Duke Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research.

Unlike other nicotine vapor delivery systems like Nicotrol or Nicorette inhalers, the new technology combines nicotine with the vapor phase of pyurvic acid to form a salt called nicotine pyruvate which, when inhaled, replicates the natural inhalation used by smokers when drawing on a cigarette. This results in lower craving for ciggarets, rapid increase in plasma nicotine concentrations and a lower irritation compared to Nicotrol or Nicorette.

“Compared to the current nicotine vapor inhaler, we are able to give smokers more nicotine, although still less than a cigarette, with less irritation, resulting in reduced cravings,” said Rose. “Thus we are able to achieve a therapeutic effect with greater tolerability.”

The inhalation system may one day prove useful for other medications delivery but for now more research is needed to asses its role in helping people quit smoking and to examine the safety and effectiveness of prolonged use of the inhalation system.

Grapes may prevent cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome

Eating grapes may reduce the risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome, according to researchers at the University of Michigan Health System. These risk factors include obesity and hypertension that often lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

To test the effects of grapes on the development of heart disease and metabolic syndrome researchers used a breed of rats prone to develop metabolic syndrome. They divided the rats into two groups and fed a high-fat diet to one of the groups, while the other group received the same diet but supplemented with grape powder mixed from regular table grapes.

After three months, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet had lower blood pressure, better heart function, and reduced indicators of inflammation in the heart and the blood than rats who received no grape powder. Rats also had lower triglycerides and improved glucose tolerance.

“The possible reasoning behind the lessening of metabolic syndrome is that the phytochemicals (Grapes contain phytochemicals - a naturally occurring antioxidants) were active in protecting the heart cells from the damaging effects of metabolic syndrome. In the rats, inflammation of the heart and heart function was maintained far better,” says Steven Bolling, M.D (Steven Bolling, M.D. – heart surgeon at the U-M Cardiovascular Center and head of the U-M Cardioprotection Research Laboratory)

Further study is needed to determine the effect grapes and other dark fruits have in preventing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in humans.

Thursday, April 29, 2010

CPR on a Child and a Baby

To perform CPR on a baby

Most cardiac arrests in babies occur from lack of oxygen, such as from drowning or choking. If you know the baby has an airway obstruction, perform first aid for choking. If you don't know why the baby isn't breathing, perform CPR.

To begin, examine the situation. Stroke the baby and watch for a response, such as movement, but don't shake the baby.

If there's no response, follow the ABC procedures below and time the call for help as follows:

* If you're the only rescuer and CPR is needed, do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 911 or your local emergency number.
* If another person is available, have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby.

Airway: Clear the airway

1. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm, flat surface, such as a table. The floor or ground also will do.
2. Gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
3. In no more than 10 seconds, put your ear near the baby's mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for breath on your cheek and ear.

If the infant isn't breathing, begin mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing immediately. Compressions-only CPR doesn't work for infants.

Breathing: Breathe for the infant

1. Cover the baby's mouth and nose with your mouth.
2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby's mouth one time, taking one second for the breath. Watch to see if the baby's chest rises. If it does, give a second rescue breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
3. If the baby's chest still doesn't rise, examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. If the object is seen, sweep it out with your finger. If the airway seems blocked, perform first aid for a choking baby.
4. Begin chest compressions to restore blood circulation.

Circulation: Restore blood circulation

1. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby's nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.
2. Gently compress the chest to about one-third to one-half the depth of the chest.
3. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm. You should pump at a rate of 100 compressions a minute.
4. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions.
5. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby.
6. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until medical personnel arrive.

To perform CPR on a child

The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. The differences are as follows:

* If you're alone, perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 911 or your local emergency number or using an AED.
* Use only one hand to perform heart compressions.
* Breathe more gently.
* Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths. This is one cycle. Following the two breaths, immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths.
* After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR, if there is no response and an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Use pediatric pads if available. If pediatric pads aren't available, use adult pads.

Continue until the child moves or help arrives.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Part 2

Remember the ABCs
Think ABC — airway, breathing and circulation — to remember the steps explained below. Move quickly through airway and breathing to begin chest compressions.

Airway: Clear the airway

1. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
2. Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders.
3. Open the person's airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person's forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
4. Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds. Look for chest motion, listen for normal breath sounds, and feel for the person's breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn't breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven't been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly to chest compressions.

Breathing: Breathe for the person
Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can't be opened.

1. With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver), pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person's mouth with yours, making a seal.
2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn't rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
3. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.

Circulation: Restore blood circulation with chest compressions

1. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person's chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
2. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of 100 compressions a minute.
3. After 30 compressions, tilt the head back and lift the chin up to open the airway. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Pinch the nose shut and breathe into the mouth for one second. If the chest rises, give a second rescue breath. If the chest doesn't rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second rescue breath. That's one cycle. If someone else is available, ask that person to give two breaths after you do 30 compressions. If you're not trained in CPR and feel comfortable performing only chest compressions, skip rescue breathing and continue chest compressions at a rate of 100 compressions a minute until medical personnel arrive.
4. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you're not trained to use an AED, a 911 operator may be able to guide you in its use. Use pediatric pads, if available, for children ages 1 to 8. Do not use an AED for babies younger than age 1. If an AED isn't available, go to step 5 below.
5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Part 1

In many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped; It is useful to know a lifesaving technique Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Ideally, CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing.

However, what you as a bystander should do in an emergency situation really depends on your knowledge and comfort level.

The bottom line is that it's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life.

Here's advice from the American Heart Association:

* Untrained. If you're not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don't need to try rescue breathing.
* Trained, and ready to go. If you're well trained, and confident in your ability, then you can opt for one of two approaches: 1. Alternate between 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths. 2. Just do chest compressions. (Details described below.)
* Trained, but rusty. If you've previously received CPR training, but you're not confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100 a minute. (Details described below.)

The above advice applies only to adults needing CPR, not to children.

CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.

When the heart stops, the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes.

To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED).

Before you begin
Before starting CPR, check:

* Is the person conscious or unconscious?
* If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you OK?"
* If the person doesn't respond and two people are available, one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 911.
* If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if instructed by the device, then begin CPR.

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Diet and exercise

How can you lose weight? With diet and exercise. The key to success is developing healthy diet and exercise habits. You may be thinking that you don't like those words — diet and exercise. Don't get hung up on the words. Diet just means eating healthy, lower calorie meals. Exercise means being more active.

Although people often focus on diet when they're trying to lose weight, being active also is an essential component of a weight-loss program. When you're active, your body uses energy (calories) to work, helping to burn the calories you take in with food you eat.

Cleaning the house, making the bed, shopping, mowing and gardening are all forms of physical activity. Exercise, on the other hand, is a structured and repetitive form of physical activity that you do on a regular basis.

Whatever activity you choose, do it regularly. Aim for 30 to 60 minutes of moderately intense physical activity most days of the week.

Diet plans

When it comes to weight loss, there's no shortage of diet plans. Check any magazine rack, and you're bound to see the latest and greatest diet plans. But how do you know if a diet plan fits your needs and lifestyle? Ask yourself these questions about any diet plan you're considering. Does it:

* Include various foods from the major food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, lean protein sources, nuts and seeds?
* Include foods you like and that you would enjoy eating for a lifetime — not just for several weeks or months?
* Feature foods you can easily find in your local grocery store?
* Allow you to eat your favorite foods, or better yet, all foods?
* Fit your lifestyle and budget?
* Include proper amounts of nutrients and calories to help you lose weight safely and effectively?
* Encourage regular physical activity?

If you answer no to any of these questions, keep looking. There are better diet plans out there for you.

Weight loss basics

Your weight is a balancing act, and calories are part of that equation. Fad diets may promise you that counting carbs or eating a mountain of grapefruit will make the pounds drop off. But when it comes to weight loss, it's calories that count. Weight loss comes down to burning more calories that you take in. You can do that by reducing extra calories from food and beverages and increasing calories burned through physical activity.

Once you understand that equation, you're ready to set your weight-loss goals and make a plan for reaching them. Remember, you don't have to do it alone. Talk to your doctor, family and friends for support. Also, plan smart: Anticipate how you'll handle situations that challenge your resolve and the inevitable minor setbacks.

If you have serious health problems because of your weight, your doctor may suggest weight-loss surgery or medications for you. In this case, you and your doctor will need to thoroughly discuss the potential benefits and the possible risks.

But don't forget the bottom line: The key to successful weight loss is a commitment to making permanent changes in your diet and exercise habits.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Diagnosing Autism

While a newborn probably will not show autism symptoms, the developmental disorder may manifest as early as 18 months. At this infant age, diagnosing autism starts with a behavioral analysis and a test, like the checklist for autism in toddlers.

Monday, April 26, 2010

Anaphylaxis ; How to deal?

A life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent trigger.

If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:

1. Immediately call your local medical emergency number.
2. Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector to treat an allergic attack (for example, EpiPen, Twinject).
3. If the person says he or she needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh.
4. Have the person lie still on his or her back.
5. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink.
6. If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking.
7. If there are no signs of breathing, coughing or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses of about two a second until paramedics arrive.
8. Get emergency treatment even if symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to recur. Monitoring in a hospital setting for several hours is usually necessary.

If you're with someone having signs of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour. An antihistamine pill, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl, others), isn't sufficient to treat anaphylaxis. These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but work too slowly in a severe reaction to help.

Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

* Skin reactions including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin
* Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat
* Constriction of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing
* A weak and rapid pulse
* Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
* Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness

Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:

* Medications (especially penicillin)
* Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish
* Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants

If you've had any kind of severe allergic reaction in the past, ask your doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with you.

Delicious Diabetic Diets

Diet plays a key role in controlling the disease. Feeling overwhelmed with all the options? Check out this video!

A very interesting story about Multiple Skin Abscesses

A 24 year old woman presented with fever and an abscess in her left antecubital fossa. She claimed that three weeks previously she had attended a blood donor session and an attempted cannulation at the site of the abscess had been unsuccessful. General examination was otherwise unremarkable and the only admitted history was of tonsillectomy, appendicectomy, and extraction of wisdom teeth. Incision and drainage of the abscess in the left antecubital fossa was undertaken on the night of admission and a ß haemolytic streptococcus and Escherichia coli were grown from the pus evacuated.

Her fever settled with intravenous antibiotics, but four days after admission a further abscess appeared on the dorsum of the right foot. Further inquiries led to a complete denial of any other relevant history.

In view of the two abscesses, a full screening for immunodeficiency was undertaken. Immunoglobulin and complement concentrations were measured and white cell function tests were performed all had normal results. The patient was negative for HIV antibodies. Other investigations performed for metastatic abscesses included abdominal ultrasonography and cerebral computed tomography, both of which had normal results.

As no further abscesses appeared during the next week's stay on the ward the patient was discharged, but she returned three days later with fever, rigors, and a swollen abscessing area in the right antecubital fossa. Again, examination was unremarkable apart from the abscess, but some tiny scars on the wrists were noted and under pressure she admitted to a suicide attempt.

Blood cultures were performed which eventually grew E coli and Streptococcus milleri, and the abscess in the right antecubital fossa was drained. She was again treated with intravenous antibiotics but six days after her admission another abscess appeared in the left antecubital fossa, which again required drainage.

Despite repeated questioning, no further helpful history was available. She vehemently denied, on confrontation, the possibility that she could either be using injecting drugs or injecting faeces into her veins. Subsequently her father, who lived 200 miles away, attended the ward and reported that the patient had been admitted to hospital with a halothane overdose in 1989 while working as a veterinary nurse. She also had a history of anorexia and bulimia with multiple suicide attempts.

Five days later she developed a further abscess on the right foot; it required drainage and again grew S milleri and E coli. Over the next two weeks she developed abscesses in her right perianal region and the right groin, both of which grew S milleri, and she then developed a suppurating wound on her abdominal wall in the right subcostal region.

On the evening that the abscess appeared on the patient's abdominal wall her friend, who visited her every day, was confronted and was found carrying a basket containing a large rat. It then became apparent that the patient had been sleeping with the rat, which was her pet, all the time she had been in hospital; her friend brought the rat in the evening and removed it in the morning. On re-examination we were unable to find any obvious rat bite marks on the patient's fingers or toes, but she habitually bit her nails and there were several lacerations on her fingers.

The multiple abscesses were thought to be due to rat bites and the patient was denied access to the rat, which had been her pet since being discovered in the wild some years before. Subsequently no further abscesses appeared, the rat no longer slept with the patient, and both remained well.
Rat bites are an uncommon cause of multiple skin abscesses, certainly in Western societies. Rat bite fever induced by Streptobacillus moniliformis is well described and is associated with chills, arthritis, and a diffuse rash

Sunday, April 25, 2010

Cervical Health:How to reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

It's time to ask yourself if you're doing all you can to reduce your risk of cervical cancer. So what's the best way to protect your cervix? For starters, you should know the facts about HPV.
HPV or human papillomavirus, is a sexually transmitted virus responsible for causing genital warts and has been linked to cervical cancer as well as other cancers. Women under thirty can decrease their risk of HPV infection by getting the HPV vaccine and/or using a condom during sexual intercourse. Regular pap smears are also recommended for women 21-30 to detect any abnormal changes in the cells around the cervix.

According to the American Cancer Society, between 60% and 80% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had a pap smear in the past 5 fears. The ACS website advises that “women who have their Pap tests as often as they should are least likely to get cervix cancer.” Women who are at a higher risk of cervical cancer include those who have HPV and it doesn't go away, those who have HIV or AIDS and those who smoke.

For women over 35, however, replacing pap smears with HPV testing may be more effective, according to a new Italian study. Researchers studied a group of Italian women for over three years and found that HPV testing in women over 35 led to fewer cervical cancer deaths. Once women over 35 receive a negative HPV test, they can wait five years before their next test, according to the researchers. HPV testing in place of a pap smear would not be suitable for women under 35, however, since most HPV infections in young women clear up on their own.
A separate study at McGill University in Canada found that 56% of college couples have HPV.The researchers gave questionnaires to 263 college students between the ages of 18 and 24. The participants had been sexually active with their partners for no longer than six months. The study found that HPV spreads quickly in new sexual relationships; most of the couples were infected with HPV within the first couple months after they began having sex. The researchers stressed the need for prevention. 44% of the participants had the type of HPV that causes cancer.

According to the CDC, about 50% of sexually active people will be infected with HPV, but most will not experience any symptoms and the virus will usually clear up on its own. The American Cancer Society also stresses that though most women who have sex will get HPV, most of them will not develop cervical cancer.

Saturday, April 24, 2010

The Real Cost of Smoking

Need another reason to quit smoking? Smoking causes 1 out of 5 deaths in America. Understand the real costs of smoking, and you'll be ready to put down that cigarette!

Black Eyes

Black eyes, even they’re on plummeting toddlers or qualified boxers, are like spotlight calling attention to the damage, perhaps that’s why they’re called “shiners.” The skin and blood vessels nearby the eye are very fragile, so even minor bumps to the eye or temple can cause bleeding.

Gravity supports the blood to pool in the eyelid and area under the eye, creating swollen red, blue, and/or black bruises. Luckily, in most cases, bruises around the eye (medically known as periorbital hematomas) cause more stares than permanent eye damage, with most of the visible signs dispel within one-and-a-half weeks.

How to Cure Black Eye

Most black eyes can be treated at home using the following formula:

1. How to Cure Black Eye with Ice packs - Cool it down - Ice packs or cold squash during the first 24 hours, mainly when used punctually after being injured, could help reduce bleeding and swelling. Raw steaks that have usually been put on black eyes were done so as the meat is cold, not because it has any special healing actions. Ice wrapped in a washcloth or a baggie of frozen veggies are more suitable steak alternate. This is How to Cure Black Eye with Icepacks.

2. How to Cure Black Eye by avoiding a swelled head - Keep your head high (sleep with a few extra pillows, for example) to help frontier swelling and pooling. Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers, such as acetaminophen, can also help relieve distress. Avoid aspirin since it reduces the blood’s ability to clot.

3. How to Cure Black Eye by applying moist heat - On the second day following the injury, applying warm wash cloths or squeeze can help augment circulation to the injured tissue. This aids in the re-absorption of any left over blood that has collected at the injury site, endorse healing.

Friday, April 23, 2010

Pregnancy Symptoms

If you're experiencing pregnancy symptoms, you're probably eager to know if you're actually pregnant — whether you've been trying to get pregnant for months or your pregnancy symptoms came as a surprise.

Early pregnancy symptoms such as fatigue, tender breasts and mood swings sometimes indicate pregnancy. In other cases, these classic pregnancy symptoms may be something else — such as an illness or the start of your period. Often, the easiest way to know what's behind pregnancy symptoms is to take a home pregnancy test.

If your home pregnancy test is positive, make an appointment with your health care provider. You may also want to try a pregnancy due date calculator. If you're pregnant, estimating your due date is an important part of your prenatal care.

Getting Pregnant

Getting pregnant can be an exciting time. For some, getting pregnant seems to happen simply by talking about it. For others, getting pregnant takes plenty of patience and perhaps a bit of luck.

Understanding when you're most fertile can make getting pregnant easier. It's also important to consider simple do's and don'ts of conception. For example, maintain a healthy weight, eat a healthy diet and have sex regularly — especially near the time of ovulation. Don't smoke or drink alcohol. Of course, healthy sperm counts, too.

With frequent unprotected sex, most healthy couples conceive within one year. If you have trouble getting pregnant, don't go it alone. A fertility specialist or other health care provider may be able to help. Infertility affects men and women equally — and treatment is available.

Parental health:
Parental health is key to a healthy pregnancy. After all, healthy parents are more likely to have healthy babies. Start with parental health basics, such as updating your vaccines, eating healthy foods, taking prenatal vitamins and exercising regularly.

Parental health takes on additional significance if you have a chronic medical condition that may affect your pregnancy. Work with your health care provider to manage your condition both before and during pregnancy. Remember, taking good care of yourself is the best way to take care of your baby.

Parental health includes genetic considerations, too. Simply understanding parental health — including your family medical history and your partner's family medical history — can provide clues about specific traits or conditions that may be inherited. For more specific information, genetic testing may be an option.

Coronary Angioplasty

The Best Exercise for LOWER BODY

Top 10 Worst Foods - Nutrition By Natalie

Thursday, April 22, 2010


Rabies is an acute viral infection is transmitted to humans by a bite or by the exposure of broken skin to an infected animal's saliva. Immunization given early (preferably within 24 hours but certainly within 72 hours) can usually prevent the disease.

The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain functions to receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. The rabies virus spreads through the nerves of the brain and spinal cord first causing flu-like symptoms such as fever and malaise. As the disease advances it causes anxiety, confusion, brain dysfunction, progressing to hallucinations, delirium, and insomnia. If left untreated, rabies is nearly always fatal.

How Deal with Animal Bites

If an animal bites you or your child, follow these guidelines:

* For minor wounds. If the bite barely breaks the skin and there is no danger of rabies, treat it as a minor wound. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection and cover the bite with a clean bandage.
* For deep wounds. If the animal bite creates a deep puncture of the skin or the skin is badly torn and bleeding, apply pressure with a clean, dry cloth to stop the bleeding and see your doctor.
* For infection. If you notice signs of infection, such as swelling, redness, increased pain or oozing, see your doctor immediately.
* For suspected rabies. If you suspect the bite was caused by an animal that might carry rabies — including any wild or domestic animal of unknown immunization status — see your doctor immediately.

Doctors recommend getting a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your last one was more than five years ago and your wound is deep or dirty, your doctor may recommend a booster. You should have the booster as soon as possible after the injury.

Domestic pets cause most animal bites. Dogs are more likely to bite than cats are. Cat bites, however, are more likely to cause infection. Bites from nonimmunized domestic animals and wild animals carry the risk of rabies. Rabies is more common in raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes than in cats and dogs. Rabbits, squirrels and other rodents rarely carry rabies.

Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

Women's health: Preventing top 10 threats Part 2

6 — Injuries

The leading cause of fatal accidents among women is motor vehicle crashes, according to the CDC. To reduce your risk of a deadly crash:

* Wear your seat belt.
* Follow the speed limit.
* Don't drive under the influence of alcohol or any other substances.
* Don't drive while sleepy.

Falls and poisoning also pose major women's health threats. Take common-sense precautions, such as having your vision checked, using nonslip mats in the tub and placing carbon monoxide detectors near the bedrooms in your home.

7 — Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes — the most common type of diabetes — affects the way your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Possible complications of type 2 diabetes include heart disease, blindness, nerve damage and kidney damage. To prevent type 2 diabetes:

* Lose excess pounds, if you're overweight.
* Eat a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat foods.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.

8 — Flu

Influenza is a common viral infection. While a case of the flu isn't usually serious for otherwise healthy adults, complications of the flu can be deadly — especially for those who have weak immune systems or chronic illnesses. To protect yourself from the flu, get an annual flu vaccine.

9 — Kidney disease

Kidney failure is often a complication of diabetes or high blood pressure. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, follow your doctor's treatment suggestions. In addition:

* Eat a healthy diet. Limit the amount of salt you consume.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.
* Lose excess pounds, if you're overweight.
* Take medications as prescribed.

10 — Blood poisoning (septicemia or sepsis)

Septicemia is a life-threatening infection marked by the presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood. Septicemia commonly arises from infections in the lung, urinary tract, abdomen or pelvis. Often, it isn't preventable — but you can take steps to avoid infections and to protect yourself from illnesses that weaken your immune system:

* Wash your hands often.
* Keep your vaccines current.
* Seek prompt medical care for any serious infection.
* Change tampons at least every six to eight hours and avoid using superabsorbent tampons.
* Wipe from front to back after urinating and urinate


Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Women's health: Preventing top 10 threats Part 1

Many of the leading threats to women's health can be prevented — if you know how. Consider this top 10 list of women's health threats, compiled from statistics provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other organizations. Then take steps to promote women's health and reduce your risks today.

1 — Heart disease

Heart disease isn't just a man's disease. Heart disease is also a major women's health threat. To prevent heart disease:

* Don't smoke or use other tobacco products. Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
* Eat a healthy diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fiber and fish.
Cut back on foods high in saturated fat and sodium.
* If you have high cholesterol or high blood pressure, follow your doctor's
treatment recommendations.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.
* Maintain a healthy weight.
* If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. Too much alcohol can
raise blood pressure.
* If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control.
* Manage stress.

2 — Cancer

The most common cause of cancer deaths among women is lung cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Breast cancer and colorectal cancer also pose major women's health threats. To reduce your risk of cancer:

* Don't smoke or use other tobacco products. Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.
* Maintain a healthy weight.
* Eat a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and avoid high-fat foods.
* Limit your sun exposure. When you're outdoors, use sunscreen.
* If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation.
* Consult your doctor for regular cancer screenings.
* Reduce exposure to cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), such as radon,
asbestos, radiation and air pollution.
* Breast-feed, if you can.

3 — Stroke

You can't control some stroke risk factors, such as age, family history, sex or race. But you can take these steps to reduce your risk of stroke:

* Don't smoke.
* If you have high cholesterol or high blood pressure, follow your doctor's
treatment recommendations.
* Limit the amount of saturated fat and cholesterol in your diet. Try to avoid
trans fat entirely.
* Maintain a healthy weight.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.
* If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control.
* If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation.

4 — COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of chronic lung conditions, including bronchitis and emphysema. To prevent COPD:

* Don't smoke. Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
* Minimize exposure to chemicals and air pollution.

5 — Alzheimer's disease

There's no proven way to prevent Alzheimer's disease, but consider taking these steps:

* Take care of your heart. High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and high cholesterol may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's.
* Avoid head injuries. There appears to be a link between head injury and future risk of Alzheimer's.
* Maintain a healthy weight.
* Include physical activity in your daily routine.
* Avoid tobacco.
* If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation.
* Stay socially active.
* Maintain mental fitness. Practice mental exercises, and take steps to learn new things.